A lot of people in my life are struggling with their mental health right now. Perhaps you are as well, January seems to bring it out in people. When I am having a bad mental health day, it helps me to remember that brain chemistry is largely to blame for how we feel. Even the ancient Hellenes seemed to realize that emotions stem from the brain (even though they attributed it to phlegm), and it's of all ages to struggle.

On the Sacred Disease is a work of the Hippocratic Corpus, written in 400 BCE. The authorship of the piece can't be confirmed and is therefore regarded as dubious. The treatise contains causes of illnesses that take them out of the realm of the supernatural and into the realm of naturalistic, which is considered a major break in the history of medicine.

“People should know that our pleasures, happiness, laughter, and jokes from nowhere else [but the brain] and that our griefs, pains, sorrows, depressions and mourning come from the same place. And through it we think especially, and ponder, and see and hear and come to perceive both shameful things and noble things and wicked things and good things as well as sweet and bitter, at times judging them so by custom, at others by understanding what is advantageous based on distinguishing what is pleasurable and not in the right time and [that] these things are not the same to us.

By this very organ we become both sane and delirious and fears and horrors attend us sometimes at night and sometimes at day. This brings us bouts of sleeplessness and makes us mistake-prone at terrible times,  bringing thoughts we cannot follow, and deeds which are unknown, unaccustomed or untried.

Yes, we suffer all these things from or brain when it is not health but is hotter than natural, too cold or too wet or too dry or suffers any other kind of thing contrary to its custom. We go insane because of its moistness. For whenever it is wetter than natural, it is forced to move. And when it moves, neither sight can be still nor hearing. Instead, we hear and see different things at different times and the tongue talks about the kinds of things it sees and hears each time. But a person can think as long as the brain remains still.”

Sorry, kind readers, I am swamped! I'm going to share a very interesting lecture with you about the contemporary relevance of the Iliad. The lecturer is Erwin Cook, Ph.D., murchison Distinguished Professor, Classical Studies, at Trinity University.

One of my most-viewed post is today's re-post. It's about the types of incense that are out there and about my foolproof solution too burning raisins. I wanted to share this solution with you again as the idea seemed to be a real eye-opener for people, an I've been getting quite a few questions about the subject.

Generalizing, there are three types incenses: stick and spiral incense, cone incense, and raw resins and gums. Stick incense direct-burning, meaning you only need to light it once, and the glowing coal at the end helps burn the rest of the incense. Stick incense  is made from a moldable substrate of fragrant finely ground (or liquid) incense materials and odourless binder, pressed onto a holder. In other words, it is ground up resin (or gum), to which a binder is added, which covers a piece of bamboo. Some kinds of stick incense do not have a burnable center but are pressed into sticks without a core. Spiral incense only differs from stick incense in that rather than being a slender stick, it will curl. Cone incense only differs from stick incense in form, and it never has a burnable center.

Raw resins and gums are indirect-burning, meaning they require a separate heat source in order to stay lit. They are also generally unprocessed, are not prepared in any particular way, or encouraged into any particular form. In general, the tears came off of the trees they come from, are sometimes cleaned a bit, and then sold. They can also be bought in powdered from or a paste. In general, powder burns more intense, but less long than tears. Past incense is made from powdered or granulated incense material which is then mixed with an--incombustible--binder such as honey or a softer type of resin and then formed into balls.

Hellenism knows a lot of incense types, all of them raw; the Orphic tradition made use of three types of resins, and a lot of burnable plant materials known as aromatics. There are also some specialty aromatics found listed with the surviving hymns. I made a list of all the incenses and the Gods they were burned for. Now, orphism hardly is the be all, end all, of incense use, but it's good to know, regardless.
indirect-burning incense is difficult to keep lit, and the usual way of burning them is on a piece of charcoal. Charcoal is notoriously unreliable, however, and it smokes, which makes it undesirable for indoor use. My personal solution to this is a home-made burner, with an oil-burner base. On top of that, I use one side of a tea sieve. The distance between the flame of the tea light in the holder and the sieve is absolutely perfect for burning incense tears. Gums, however, drip through the sieve so in order to burn softer resins and gums, you need to wrap a piece of aluminum foil around the outside of the sieve. It needs to be on the outside, because on the inside, the aluminum foil does not get hot enough to melt the resin.

I'll end this post with a few pictures, and hope this solution works for you. I am not a fan of processed incense, because you never know what it was processed with. I try not to eat processed foods, nor eat processed drinks (as much as I can avoid it, of course), so why give something processed to the Theoi? In my practice, it makes no sense.

Oaths in ancient Hellas were, quite literally, sacred. The ancient Hellenes tended to swear oaths by the Gods. In different places different deities were more important than others and were more likely to sworn by. Women were more likely than men to swear by female deities, and vise versa. Part of the choice most likely also had to do with the amount of kharis they'd built up with that particular God. Perhaps the situation that made you swear had an effect on the choice of God they swore by as well. I found a very lovely podcast about oaths yesterday, which describes the value and practice of oaths and oath breaking.

Melvyn Bragg, Alan Sommerstein (Professor of Greek at the University of Nottingham), Paul Cartledge (Professor of Greek History at the University of Cambridge), and Mary Beard (Professor in Classics at the University of Cambridge) feature in this podcast which asks questions like: how did the Classical world come to understand the oath? Why did oaths come to occupy such a central place in the political, social and legal life of the Athenian State? And what role did oath-making play in the expanding Roman Empire?

When you want to swear an oath to the Theoi, hold up your right hand, bend your pinkie and ringfinger down to your palm and extend all other fingers up. An example of an oath sworn is the following from the 'Argonautica' by Apollonius Rhodes:

"I swear by Leto's Son [Apollon], who of His own accord taught me prophetic lore; by my own ill-starred fate; by the dark cloud that veils my eyes; by the Powers below [presumably Haides, Persephone and the Erinyes] – and may They blast me if I die forsworn – that you will not incur the wrath of Heaven by helping me." [2.259]
On the first day of the Lênaia (Λήναια), Elaion is hosting a PAT ritual for it. This three-day festival honours Dionysos and has a multitude of links to the Lesser Dionysia. In fact, it's been described as an urban version of the Lesser Dionysia, but without the grander of the greater Dionysia. Will you join us for a nighttime ritual on 29 January (or 10 am on 30 January)?

The Lênaia is held--roughly--at the coldest time of year in Hellas. It's dedicated to Dionysos Lênaios (Ληναιος, of the wine press), and is almost undoubtedly a fertility festival, which was celebrated to encourage the earth to thaw and soften, and become ready for sowing. It is said that the Lênaia celebrates the birth of Dionysos--or at least the version of His birth from Zeus's thigh, but this is most definitely not a supported theory by the whole of the scholastic community. This festival is tied to Dionysos' role as Year-Daímōn in which He was conceived at Agrai, located on the banks of the Ilissus River on the Hellenic peninsula near Athens. The word 'Agrai', pertains to both the place name and the rites of Dionysos held there--most commonly referred to as the 'lesser Mysteries' (20-26 Anthesterion). Another reason for the name of the festival might be the female revelers that often partook of Dionysos' worship and were named Maenads, or Lenai.

The Lênaia starts at the twelfth and ends either on the fourteenth or fifteenth of the month. At Elaion, we feel it ends at dusk on the fifteenth, as that would make up the full three days attested to (from dusk on the twelfth, to dusk on the fifteenth).

The Lênaia was an ancient, local, mostly Athenian, festival, although it was locally celebrated elswhere as well. In Athens, no one from another city could attend. This was partly an inevitability, seeing as the seas at this time were the most dangerous of the year. It's documented that the Lenaion--most likely a theatre outside of the city or a section of the Agora--was the stage for the Lênaia, and might have been the earliest shrine of Dionysos at Athens. Eventually, the Theatre of Dionysos was built, and the Greater Dionysia became the main festival for the performance of drama, but tragedies and comedies were also put on during the Lênaia. In fact, they were the main event.

At the public level this was primarily a theatrical and civic affair, and the city invoked the god Dionysos in his role as bringer of wealth and the blessings of civilization. The festival might have started with a procession from the wilds outside of Athens, into the civilization of Athens itself. During the procession, the Daidukhos (Torch-bearer) yelled, “Invoke the God!” and the celebrants responded, "Son of Semele, Iakkhos, Giver of Wealth!”. (Parke, Festivals of the Athenians, p 104–4) This procession might have played out (parts of) the early myths surrounding Dionysos, where He and his revelers came to His cousin Pentheus, but were imprisoned. Dionysos broke Himself and His revelers out, and tried to explain His worship to His cousin. Yet, Pentheus would not listen, so Dionysos left him to his anger. He took His followers--including many local women, including Pentheus' mother and sister--to the hills. When Pentheus pursued Him, He drove the women mad. To them Pentheus appeared to be a moutain lion. In a berserk rage, they attacked him, and his mother--who was first to reach him--ripped his head off, while the others tore off his limbs.

At midnight on at least one of the days, revellers took to an all-night ecstatic dance, dressed up and bearing various musical instruments (the thyrsus, castanets, tambourines and flutes, primarily). They danced in front of a representation of Dionysos, usually a simple post, dressed in a man’s tunic, with garlanded branches like upraised arms, and with a bearded mask of Dionysos. It's this bear that often discourages scholars from interpreting the Lênaia as a festival to celebrate Dionysos' birth. Wine was a large part of the dance and stood on a table in front of the idol; generally, this wine was the last of the old.

There were massive parades through the streets during the days, which were led by the Archōn Basileus and the officials who oversaw the sacred ceremonies of the Eleusinian mysteries. There were speeches by political figures, awards were given to outstanding citizens, veterans and their families, and business was discussed in the open, and with gusto. Tragedies and comedies were performed, but comedies were the main focus. While the plays were wonderful, many people looked forward to the household part of the festival more, though, as it was encouraged to get at least somewhat tipsy and ward off the cold in bed with your partner.

It's interesting to note that during the midwinter celebrations of Dionysos, a group of revelers roamed Mount Parnassos at Delphi (we mostly know this from an account where they had to be rescued off of the mountain when a blizzard struck), and it is attested that every second year, the Delphic women were joined by women from Athens. The Lênaia might have been the main Dionysian festival for these Athenian women.

You can join the community for the event here, and download the ritual here. We look forward to have you participate!
I was talking to an Elaion member recently who takes part in our Practicing Apart Together rituals. She wondered how to best pronounce the names of the Hellenic Gods. I shared with her the following tool, and I wanted to share it with you today as well: the sound library of greek-gods.info.

The library has sound files of the names of Titans, Olympians, many of the other Gods, mythological creatures and heroes, in both Greek and English. I especially love listening to both files for one name, and spotting the differences. Let's just say that there are plenty.
The Antikythera wreck is a shipwreck from the 2nd quarter of the 1st century BC. It was discovered by sponge divers off Point Glyphadia on the Hellenic island of Antikythera in 1900. The wreck manifested numerous statues, coins and other artefacts dating back to the 4th century BC, as well as the severely corroded remnants of a device that is called the world's oldest known analog computer, the Antikythera mechanism.

The Antikythera mechanism is an ancient analog computer designed to predict astronomical positions and eclipses. The computer's construction has been attributed to the Hellenes and was originally dated to the early 1st century BC. Technological artefacts approaching its complexity and workmanship did not appear again until the 14th century, when mechanical astronomical clocks began to be built in Western Europe.

The mechanism was housed in a wooden box and is made up of bronze gears (that we know of). The mechanism's remains were found as eighty-two separate fragments of which only seven contain any gears or significant inscriptions. Today, the fragments of the Antikythera mechanism are kept at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens.

The Antikythera mechanism fascinates me. I spent some time discussing it with my dear friend and fellow Elaion core member Robert Clark last Sunday, and came across the video below yesterday that provided me with even more details I did not know. If the Antikythera mechanism is of interest to you, enjoy!

At ancient Arkhia, on the 9th of Gamelion, a sacrifice was performed in honor of Athena. The calendar does not state a specific epithet or further details, so we will be honoring Her in all Her glory. Will you join us at 10 am EST on 27 January?

The ritual for the event can be found here and the community page here.

From whatever angle you look at it, the choragic monument of Thrasyllus is impressive. It had been thus constructed to be visible by the whole of ancient Athens. Today, it stands imposingly above the bustling D. Areopagitou and Makrygianni Streets; it stops you in your tracks when seen from the Parthenon Hall in the Acropolis Museum; it appears huge as you look at it from the Theatre of Dionysus. Over the last few years, it was under restoration. Now, these limited restoration works are completed.

the cave on the southern slope of the Acropolis
Read more at https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2018/01/restoring-acropolis-lost-thrassylos.html#B2zVkLK3BceJF6Ab.99
The entrance to the cave on the southern slope of the Acropolis was constructed around 320 AD by Thrasyllus, judge of the contests of the Great Dionysia and was in the form of a small temple; the standard choragic monument. Three of its structural parts are standing, the rest lie on the ground. The monument collapsed when hit by a cannon in 1827, during the siege of the Acropolis by the Turks.

The choragic monument’s architect-restorer, Dr. Constantine Boletis (former Head of the Scientific Committee of the Acropolis South Slope Monuments) explains:

"After many years of research and restoration by the Committee of the Acropolis South Slope and the Ephorate of Antiquities of Athens, approximately 190 years after its collapse by Turkish cannon fire on February 1, 1827, the choragic monument of Thrasyllus converses again with the rock above the ancient theatre of Dionysus, enlightening us on the artist and aesthetic value of the Acropolis South Slope."

The monument of Thrasyllus, which from the inscription on its lintel dates to 320/19 BC, was modified in 271/70 BC by his son, Thrasycles.

"Its facade, almost a copy of the west façade of the south wing of the Acropolis Propylaea, looked like a gateway with two openings and pilasters, a central pillar, doors, a lintel with an unbroken row of a droplet motif, a frieze and a cornice. The frieze was decorated with ten olive wreaths, five on either side of a central ivy wreath, while above the cornice stood pedestals for choragic tripods."

Dr. Boletis says that in most works of historical iconography a marble statue of Dionysus can be distinguished in a central position on the monument, placed there, according to the most prevalent scientific arguments, in Roman times. This statue had been removed in 1802 on behalf of Lord Elgin and is now on display in the British Museum. As for the Christian chapel behind the ancient monument’s façade, it was there that, during Turkish rule, Athenian women went to pray for the health of their sick children. It was also in this cave however that adulteresses were shamed in public.

After the establishment of an independent Greek state, it had been announced that the monument was to be restored by the Archaeological Society. The majority of its stones, however, were used to restore the Byzantine church of Panagia Sotira of Nicodemus, commonly known as the Russian Church on Filellinon Street. The influence of this monument on western architecture is nevertheless important.

"When the stones of Thrasyllus were taken away from the area of the theatre of Dionysus as common building material, its morphology was adopted and came to be a significant feature of the Greek Revival movement in Great Britain, through designs in the book Τhe Antiquities of Athens by British artists J. Stuart και N. Revett."

The olive wreath also became a decorative motif on other buildings.

"In his analysis of the Schauspielhaus in Berlin, the great German architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel declared that the Thrasyllus monument had been the source of inspiration for its colonnades. Morphological elements borrowed from the monument adorn the Rotunda of the Capitol Building and the Lincoln Memorial in Washington."

Proper research began in 2002. Dr. Boletis supervised the implementation of the restoration study with Efrosyni Sampa MSc in charge of the building’s statics. The funding of the work did not advance smoothly. Work resumed in 2011 with restoration via Community Programmes and the Programme of Public Investments, with the project completed by the Ephorate of Antiquities of Athens. Four architectural members from the National Archaeological Museum were incorporated in the restoration, while a stone of the frieze bearing four emblematic wreaths was newly constructed with funds from the J F. Costopoulos Foundation. According to Dr. Eleni Banou head of the Ephorate of Antiquities: 

"The restoration of the Thrasyllus monument has changed the neighbourhood. On the South slope are both the Thrasyllus monument, whose recovery after its ‘loss’ impresses visitors, as well as the Asclepion which is not so obvious, due to the tall trees, and comes into view only when taking the uphill path. There is also the Klepsydra which changed the landscape of the North Slope, while in the Roman Agora, the interior of the Kyrrestos Horologion can be visited for the first time, as can the Fethiye Mosque. The latter is one of the most important Ottoman buildings in the historical centre of Athens, which hosts small-scale events such as the exhibition on Hadrian which we are preparing for mid-January." 

For security reasons visitors cannot enter the Thrasylleion.

"The ascent is difficult. We want to reconstruct the steps of the Dionysus Theatre; neither has the walk been completely designed and this is also in the Ephorate’s programme."
On 26 January, 10 am EST, we honor Apollon in His epithets of Apotropaios and Nymphegetes as well as His consorts, the Nymphs. This ancient sacrifice was held at Arkhia on Gamelion 8 and we invite you to join us.

Apollon Apotropaios (Ἀποτρόπαιοs) was and is the averter of evil. Rituals dedicated to the deity were apotropaic, intended to turn away harm or evil influences, as in deflecting misfortune. This could be anything from warding off a plague to keeping mice out of the grain storage.

Apollon Nymphegetes (Νυμφηγέτης) is 'Apollon who looks after nymphs', or 'Apollo who leads nymphs'. In this epithet, Apollon was and is a pastoral God, who was considered the protector of shepherds and pastoral life.

Nymphs are the female divinities of the natural features of the landscape, and there are many kinds, depending on the landscape they frequent.

Combining these traits into a single ritual can tell you all about it you need: this was a ritual to ward of the dangers of rural living (by addressing Apollon in his two protective epithets) and to invite blessings (from the nymphs) onto those who partook.

We welcome you to worship with us at 10 am EST on 26 January. You can join the community here and find the ritual here.
Beginning at sundown on the 24th of January, on Gamelion 7, Kourotrophos were honoured at Erkhia along with two epithets of Apollon. Elaion will be organizing two Practicing Apart Together rituals for this event in the daylight hours of the 25th of January.

PAT ritual for the sacrifice to Kourotrophos and Apollon Delphios
The Kourotrophoi are mostly female deities who watch over growing children--Gaea, Artemis, Hekate, Eirênê, Aglauros and Pandrosos, especially. Specific offerings to Them are known from the demos Erkhia (or Erchia), but duplicate similar offerings on the Acropolis of Athens. Especially at Erkhia, it varied per sacrifice which Kourotrophos was/were sacrificed to. In this case, where no specific deity is listed, none of the above were most likely honored. The deity in question was Kourotrophos Herself, a deity whose main function was to watch over nursing children and their mothers.

In conjunction with Kourotrophos Apollon Delphios was sacrificed to. Apollon Delphios (Δελφιος) is the epithet of Apollon of the Oracle (of Delphi in Phokis). Its advice has saved the lives of many a man, woman, and--most importantly in this case--child.

The ritual for this sacrifice can be found here, and you can join our community page here. We truly hope you will join us for this important rite on 25 January, at 10 am EST.

PAT ritual for the sacrifice to Apollon Lykeios‏
On that same day but at a different location in Erkhia, a sacrifice to Apollon Lykeios was attested to. Apollon Lykeios (Λυκειος) is the epithet of Apollon of the Wolves and Apollon of the Light. Apollon, by the name of Lykeios, is therefore generally characterised as the destroyer. He who preys, He who scorches with his light. It might seem odd to honour him on a day sacred to the nurturer of children, but nothing could be further from the truth. In this epithet, Apollon can be sung and offered to in order to appease and sated. Perhaps, if enough kharis is established, Apollon Lykeios will pass your children by...

The ritual for this sacrifice can be found here, and you can join our community page here. We You can join us on 25 January, at 11 am EST.

Apologies, this is a pre-scheduled post. At the time of posting, I will be in bed, sleeping. This poor blogger outdid herself a little this week and she'd been living on a max of six hours of sleep a night for a few weeks now. It's time for a sleep-in! Everyone I haven't gotten back to the last few days, I'll be catching up with over the weekend. Apologies! For today, have some videos to tide you over.

Secrets of the Island of Minos (Crete 3000-1100 BCE)

Centers of Hellenism (Ephesus & Pergamum)

Visit of the Sanctuaries of Apollo (400-300 BCE)

More than 4,000 years ago, builders carved out the entire surface of a naturally pyramid-shaped promontory on the Greek island of Keros. They shaped it into terraces covered with 1,000 tonnes of specially imported gleaming white stone to give it the appearance of a giant stepped pyramid rising from the Aegean: the most imposing manmade structure in all the Cyclades archipelago. But beneath the surface of the terraces lay undiscovered feats of engineering and craftsmanship to rival the structure’s impressive exterior. Archaeologists from three different countries involved in an ongoing excavation have found evidence of a complex of drainage tunnels – constructed 1,000 years before the famous indoor plumbing of the Minoan palace of Knossos on Crete – and traces of sophisticated metalworking. This reports The Guardian.

A researcher holds a mould for making a spearhead from molten copper.
The Dhaskalio promontory is a tiny island as the result of rising sea levels, but 4,500 years ago was attached by a narrow causeway to Keros, now uninhabited and a protected site. In the third millennium BC Keros was a major sanctuary where complex rituals were enacted. Earlier excavations by the team from the University of Cambridge, the Ephorate of Antiquities of Cyclades and the Cyprus Institute have uncovered thousands of marble Cycladic sculptures – the stylised human figures which inspired western artists, including Pablo Picasso – and which appear to have been deliberately broken elsewhere and brought to the island for burial.

Maintaining as well as constructing the settlement would have taken a huge communal effort. The now-deserted slopes of Dhaskalio were once covered with structures and buildings, suggesting that 4,500 years ago it was one of the most densely populated parts of the islands – despite the fact that it could not have been self-sufficient, meaning that most food, like the stone and the ore for metal working, had to be imported.

The first evidence of metal-working was found in excavations 10 years ago. The new finds have uncovered two workshops full of metalworking debris, and objects including a lead axe, a mould for copper daggers and dozens of ceramic fragments from metalworking equipment including the mouth of a bellows. Archaeologists will return to excavate an intact clay oven, found at the very end of the last season.

Joint director of the excavation Michael Boyd, of the University of Cambridge, said metalworking expertise was evidently concentrated at Dhaskalio at a time when access to both skills and raw materials was very limited. Far-flung communities were drawn into networks centred on the site, craft and agricultural production was intensified, and the architecture became grander, gradually overshadowing the original importance of the sanctuary. Excavated soil reveals food traces including pulses, grapes, olives, figs and almonds, and cereals, including wheat and barley.

"What we are seeing here with the metalworking and in other ways is the beginnings of urbanization."

Evi Margaritis of the Cyprus Institute said:

"Much of this food was imported: in the light of this evidence we need to reconsider what we know about existing networks to include food exchange."

A researcher holds a mould for making a spearhead from molten copper. Photograph: Michael Boyd
The pyramid of terraces would have blazed in the Greek sun, visible from far off, covered in white stone imported from Naxos 10 kilometres away. The complex of drainage tunnels was discovered when archaeologists were excavating an imposing staircase in the lower terraces: research continues to discover whether they were for fresh water or sewage.

Lord Renfrew, joint director of the excavation, former Disney professor of archaeology at Cambridge and now the senior fellow at the McDonald Institute for archaeological research, first landed on Keros as a student and has returned often throughout his long career. He believes the promontory may originally have become a focus for development because it guarded the best natural harbour on the island, with wide views across the Aegean.

The excavations are being recorded digitally, using the iDig programme running on iPads for the first time in the Aegean. This creates three-dimensional models using photogrammetry recording of the entire digging process, giving everyone involved access to all data in real time.
On the day of the Hene kai Nea, I post a monthly update about things that happened on the blog and in projects and organizations related to it. I will also announce Elaion's coming PAT rituals.

New things happening:
PAT rituals for Gamelion:
  • Gamelion 7 - January 25 - Sacrifice to the Kourotrophos and Apollon Delphios
  • Gamelion 7 - January 25 - Sacrifice to Apollon Lykeios
  • Gamelion 8 - January 26 - Sacrifice to Apollon Apotropaius, Apollon Nymphegetes, & the Nymphs at Erkhia
  • Gamelion 9 - January 27 - Sacrifice to Athena at Erkhia
  • Gamelion 12-15 - January 30 / February 2 - Lenaia - festival in honor of Dionysus in the Attic deme of Limnai
  • Gamelion 27 - February 14 - Theogamia/Gamelia - celebrating the sacred marriage of Zeus Teleios and Hera Telei
  • Gamelion 27 - February 14 - Sacrifice to Kourotrophos, Hera, Zeus Teleius, and Poseidon at Erkhia

Anything else?
Are you looking for an online shop to buy incenses and other Hellenistic basics from? Try The Hellenic Handmaid on Etsy.

Would you like to support me? Buy me a coffee.
I'm in the process of finishing up a writing guide I have been working on, so my time is very limited at the moment. I'm going to have to leave you with a video today, on Hellenic mythology.

Greek Mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the historic Greeks, regarding their gods and heroes, the nature of the sector, and the origins and importance of their own cult and formality practices. It became a part of the religion in historic Greece and is part of religion in present day Greece and round the world, called Hellenismos. Modern scholars talk to and observe the myths in an try to throw light on the non secular and political institutions of Ancient Greece and its civilization, and to gain understanding of the character of myth-making itself.

Greek mythology is explicitly embodied in a large collection of narratives, and implicitly in Greek representational arts, which includes vase-art work and votive items. Greek fantasy tries to provide an explanation for the origins of the sector, and details the lives and adventures of a extensive sort of gods, goddesses, heroes, heroines, and mythological creatures. These bills initially were disseminated in an oral-poetic culture; today the Greek myths are recognized in general from Greek literature.

The oldest known Greek literary sources, Homer's epic poems Iliad and Odyssey, awareness on occasions surrounding the Trojan War. Two poems through Homer's close to current Hesiod, the Theogony and the Works and Days, contain accounts of the genesis of the world, the succession of divine rulers, the succession of human a long time, the foundation of human woes, and the origin of sacrificial practices. Myths are also preserved in the Homeric Hymns, in fragments of epic poems of the Epic Cycle, in lyric poems, in the works of the tragedians of the fifth century BC, in writings of scholars and poets of the Hellenistic Age, and in texts from the time of the Roman Empire with the aid of writers consisting of Plutarch and Pausanias.

Archaeological findings offer a fundamental supply of element about Greek mythology, with gods and heroes featured prominently within the ornament of many artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the 8th century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles. In the succeeding Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic durations, Homeric and diverse different mythological scenes seem, supplementing the existing literary proof.[2] Greek mythology has had an in depth affect at the lifestyle, arts, and literature of Western civilization and stays part of Western historical past and language. Poets and artists from historic instances to the existing have derived notion from Greek mythology and feature determined modern significance and relevance within the topics.
A new application created by a Greek entrepreneur gives visitors the chance to have 3D virtual tours of archaeological sites and see them the way they were in ancient times. As they say themselves: "Moptil provides the tourist offices with an Innovative Service for their customers. Delivers one tablet per tourist to help people visualize the Ancient monuments as they were in Antiquity with colors, statues, animated ancient Greeks and according to the consulting of renowned Archaeologists."

According to a Lifo magazine report, Mihalis Kokkinos founded Moptil in 2015, a company that creates animated archaeological sites. Visitors use a headset to take a virtual tour of an archaeological site to experience it the way it was centuries ago.

Using the Moptil device, around 60,000 people so far have seen the glorious colors of the whole Parthenon when it was built, statues that have since crumbled or been stolen over the ages, even ancient Greek athletes competing at Olympia.

The first application Kokkinos developed was the 3D virtual representation of the Acropolis. The goal was to be able to point a tablet in front of the monument and see it as it was in antiquity with statues, colors and details. The technical problems were too many, he told Lifo, but thanks to Augmented Reality technology they were solved.

Every application is created by a collaboration of 3D artists, computer programmers, archaeologists and painters, Kokkinos said. The company gives tourist guide agencies tablets with the app already installed, with no audio. Tour guides provide the verbal part.

Kokkinos said that in busy archaeological sites, such as the Acropolis in Athens or Lindos in Rhodes, the company had up to 350 tablets operating a day.

Virtual tours are on offer for the Acropolis, Olympia, Delphi, Knossos, Delos, Lindos and the Asklipio of Kos. The company’s next project is to develop 3D tour guides for archaeological sites in Italy, Spain and other popular tourist destinations. The tablets are also available to schools at discount prices.
I like scouring the internet for resources on ancient Hellas, and I stumbled upon another podcast channel I had somehow missed. It's called "The History of Ancient Greece Podcast" and can be found here.

As the creator states:

"Hello, I’m Ryan Stitt and welcome to the History of Ancient Greece.

I am not a professional historian, just an enthusiastic amateur. I studied Classical languages and ancient history at the University of Alabama, as well as some postgraduate work at UCLA. But for personal reasons, I stepped away from academia and ultimately decided to commission into the United States' Air Force.

But being away from academia doesn’t mean I love ancient history any less. In fact, it’s the opposite. I actually really miss it—except for the exams, of course! Ever since I studied abroad in Greece as a bright-eyed undergraduate, I have been in love with Greek culture and the ancient world in general. You can most definitely call me a Philhellene, a modern-day Hadrian if you will—minus the imperial powers, sadly.

I am also a huge fan of history podcasts; Mike Duncan’s History of Rome, Scott Chesworth’s The Ancient World, Jamie Redfern’s History Of series, Dominic Perry’s Egyptian History, Rob Monoco’s Podcast History of Our World—I could go on and on. As I listened to more and more podcasts, it didn’t seem like there was much out there covering Greek history. Sure, there are podcasts that deal with Greece but only from a general aspect as one cog in the machine that is western civilization or world history, or they deal with a particular subject or time period of Greek civilization—like mythology or the aforementioned Alexander the Great—but they left me wanting to know more, to dig deeper into the details. I also found absolutely nothing concerning Greek history after the death of Alexander the Great. In fact, most college courses and textbooks either end with his death or skip over the Hellenistic Period, only mentioning Greek existence in their relation to the Roman world. But those three centuries in between are a fascinating time of transformation, culturally and politically, as Greek culture was diffused throughout the entire eastern Mediterranean. So I figured that I would throw my hat in the proverbial ring and the give the people what they’re looking for, or at least what I was looking for.

The podcast begins in Greece’s mythological past, explaining what the Greeks themselves believed the origin of their universe was. Then we delve into the early archaeological evidence for humans in Greece and the way this society developed before the advent of writing. Over the course of our story we will cover almost 2000 years, from the Bronze Age period to the Roman conquest. I want to tell the long history of a fundamental civilization, bringing to life the fascinating stories of the ancient sources. But this isn’t a podcast just about stories, and it won’t just be political history, either. There too will be a big emphasis on social history, that is how the people actually lived their day-to-day lives, as well as their culture—art, architecture, philosophy, literature, religion, science, and all those other awesome aspects of the Greek achievement. This will be a comprehensive, in-depth political, social, and cultural history of Greece. So get excited, I know I am!

I should note, though, this is my first attempt at podcasting, so I welcome any and all suggestions. The podcast, hopefully, will be released every week, probably closer to the weekend. If there will be delays, I’ll let you know. The information and materials used to generate this podcast will come from a wide variety of sources, both primary and secondary, and I’ll also post pictures, maps, and other information to supplement the podcast."